Oracle database is one the widely used RDMBS system. In this tutorial, you will install and create an Oracle database 19c on Linux 7 on a virtual machine. It will be a CDB database, without Oracle Restart services.
In high level, you will perform the following:
- Change the Settings of the Appliance srv1
- Make the machine IP address static
- Configure Putty to connect to srv1
- Set up the environment variables for the OS account oracle
- Change the kernel parameter values to the recommended values
- Install more packages
- Install Oracle database software and create the sample database
- A machine with a free 8GB in its memory. This means the RAM memory in your PC should be at least 12GB.
- At least 30GB free disk space.
- Good Internet Connection
Edit the /etc/hosts file and add the hostname and the IP address to it.
# vi /etc/hosts
192.168.1.127 srv1.localdomain srv1
The tutorial aims at creating a database with the following high level specifications:
|Storage Option||file system|
Required Software and Packages
Oracle Database 19c installation files for Linux x86-64. This can be downloaded from Oracle site.
Note: download the zip file, not the rpm file.
Putty: which is a utility that provides a command line prompt to connect to a Linux server from Windows.
Setting up Environment Variables for the Software Owner Account
In the following steps, you will configure the OS variables for the software owner account (oracle).
In the Putty session, make sure the current user is root then add oracle account to vboxsf group.
The vboxsf group was created by VirtualBox Guest Additions and it allows its members to access the shared folder (staging folder) in the hosting machine. In a production real life machine, you may not need to implement this step.
# usermod -a -G vboxsf oracle
Switch the current user to oracle and make a backup copy of its bash profile file:
# su - oracle
# mv ~/.bash_profile ~/.bash_profile_bkp
Open the .bash_profile file with the vi editor
Add the following to it.
if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then
ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle; export ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_SID=oradb; export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/19.0.0/db_1; export ORACLE_HOME
NLS_DATE_FORMAT="DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS"; export NLS_DATE_FORMAT
TNS_ADMIN=$ORACLE_HOME/network/admin; export TNS_ADMIN
As root, run the following code to create the groups and directories required by Oracle software.
# su –
# groupadd oinstall
# usermod -g oinstall oracle
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/19.0.0/db_1
# mkdir -p /u01/app/oraInventory
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oracle
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app/oraInventory
Changing Kernel Parameter Values
In the following step, you will change the kernel parameter values to the values recommended by Oracle.
Make sure the current user is root
Create the following file then add the code that follows to it.
# vi /etc/sysctl.d/97-oracle-database-sysctl.conf
fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576
fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 4294967295
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
Change the current values of the kernel parameters:
# /sbin/sysctl --system
Next Reboot srv1
# shutdown -r now
Install More Packages
In the following steps, you will install further packages in srv1 that are required by Oracle database software.
Open Putty and login to srv1 as root
Run the following code to install further packages required by Oracle software.
# yum install ksh
# yum install libaio-devel.x86_64
Installing Oracle Database Software and Creating the Database
In the following steps, you will install Oracle database software in srv1 and create the database.
Copy the Oracle database software installation file to the staging folder.
At the time of this writing, the installation file name downloaded from Oracle site is LINUX.X64_193000_db_home.zip
In the Putty session, change the current user to oracle then extract the installation file into the Oracle database software home directory
# su - oracle
# unzip /media/sf_staging/LINUX.X64_193000_db_home.zip -d $ORACLE_HOME >/dev/null
In the linux machine login as oracle user and open a terminal window, change the current directory to the Oracle database home directory and run the gridSetup.sh script.
# cd $ORACLE_HOME
Next respond to the Installer windows as follows:
Select the following option:
“Create and Configure a single instance database.”
Select the following option: “Server Class”
||Select the following option:
|Installation Location||Keep the default values|
|Create Inventory||oraInventory Group Name: oracle|
|Configuration Type||Select the following option:
||Global Database Name: oradb.localdomain
Oracle SID: oradb
Pluggable Database Name: pdb1
|Configuration Options||Do not mark the AMM checkbox
Memory: 5120 MB
Character set: Use Unicode (AL32UTF8)
Sample Schemas: (optional) Mark the checkbox “Install sample schema in the database”
|Database Storage||Make sure “File System” option is selected|
|Management Options||Make sure the checkbox is not marked.|
Mark the checkbox Enable Recovery
Make sure “File system” option is selected
|Schema Password||Set passwords for the accounts|
|Operating System Groups||Select the “oinstall” group for all the options, except the OSOPER keep it blank.|
|Root Script Execution||Mark the checkbox “Automatically run configuration scripts” and enter the root password|
|Prerequisite Checks||All the Prerequisite Checks should pass.|
|Summary||Click on Install button|
|Install Product||When the installation reaches to nearly 12%, if will display a confirmation message. Click on Yes button.|
|Finish||click on Close button|
After the installation and database creation are finished, verify the database is up and running by logging to it as sysdba
# sqlplus / as sysdba
Check if a connection entry to oradb is added to the tnsnames.ora file. The tnsnames.ora file was created.
# cat $TNS_ADMIN/tnsnames.ora
In the VirtualBox window of srv1, start the Firefox browser and open the EM Express using the following URL. Accept the warning displayed by the browser. Enter the sys username, its password, leave the container name blank then click on Login button.
Note: You may consider creating and deploying a script that automatically starts up the database when the machine is rebooted. The steps to perform this task are as follows
Open Putty and login as root to srv1. Edit the oratab file
# vi /etc/oratab
Change the last field for the database line to Y
4. Create the file /etc/init.d/dbora and add the following code in it:
# description: Oracle auto start-stop script.
case "$1" in
# Start the Oracle databases:
# Remove "&" if you don't want startup as a background process.
su - $ORA_OWNER -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/dbstart $ORA_HOME" &
# Stop the Oracle databases:
su - $ORA_OWNER -c "$ORA_HOME/bin/dbshut $ORA_HOME" &
rm -f /var/lock/subsys/dbora
Change the group of the dbora file to oinstall, and set its permissions to 750.
# chgrp oinstall /etc/init.d/dbora
# chmod 750 /etc/init.d/dbora
6. Create symbolic links to the dbora script in the appropriate run-level script directories
ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K01dbora
ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S99dbora
ln -s /etc/init.d/dbora /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S99dbora
Restart srv1 and wait for a few minutes to allow the database to automatically start up. Login as oracle to srv1 and verify that the database has automatically started.
# ps -ef | grep pmon
# sqlplus / as sysdba
Hence we successfully installed and configured an Oracle Database 19c on Linux 7.8. If you got any query please do write comment.